By Jeremy L. Gilbert, Sachin A. Mali (auth.), Noam Eliaz (eds.)
This e-book reports the present figuring out of the mechanical, chemical and organic strategies which are liable for the degradation of quite a few implant fabrics. All 18 chapters should be written via the world over well known specialists to handle either basic and functional features of analysis into the sphere. diverse failure mechanisms akin to corrosion, fatigue, and put on can be reviewed, including experimental ideas for tracking them, both in vitro or in vivo. techniques for implant retrieval and research could be offered. various biomaterials (stainless steels, titanium and its alloys, nitinol, magnesium alloys, polyethylene, biodegradable polymers, silicone gel, hydrogels, calcium phosphates) and scientific units (orthopedic and dental implants, stents, center valves, breast implants) can be analyzed intimately. The publication will function a vast reference resource for graduate scholars and researchers learning biomedicine, corrosion, floor technological know-how, and electrochemistry.
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Extra info for Degradation of Implant Materials
The generally excellent corrosion resistance of Ti-based alloys is due to the spontaneous formation of a stable TiO2 passive film on the material surface in most environments. , for metals without the self-protection of a passivating oxide layer). S. de N. 1007/978-1-4614-3942-4_2, # Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012 29 30 S. Virtanen However, even for passive metals and alloys, a certain amount of material degradation by electrochemical dissolution mechanisms always takes place, as resistance is not given by thermodynamic inertness but by the kinetic barrier of the passive film.
Biomaterials 24(11):1837–1852 8. Bearinger JP, Orme CA, Gilbert JL (2003) Effect of hydrogen peroxide on titanium surfaces: in situ imaging and step polarization impedance spectroscopy of commercially pure and Ti6Al-4V. J Biomed Mater Res 67A(3):702–712 9. Gilbert JL, Bai Z, Bearinger J, Megremis S (2004) Dynamics of oxide films on metallic biomaterials. In: Shrivastava S (ed) Proceedings of the ASM conference on medical device materials, Anaheim, CA, September, pp 139–143 10. Ehrensberger MT, Gilbert JL (2010) The effect of static applied potential on the 24 hour impedance behavior of commercially pure titanium in simulated biological conditions.
The passivation reaction can, however, be hampered by the slow kinetics of the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction on the Ti surface (high overpotential of the reduction reaction). This explains findings of active dissolution of Ti under reducing conditions in acidic solutions (depending on the acid type and concentration) . In oxidizing acids, and in most neutral solutions, Ti is spontaneously passive. Fig. 1 Potential–pH (Pourbaix) diagram for the system Ti/H2O 32 S. Virtanen The corrosion behavior at equilibrium (corresponding to immersion of samples without polarization) can be studied by monitoring the open-circuit potential or by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measured at the corrosion potential.