By Geert H Hofstede; Gert Jan Hofstede; Michael Minkov
Pt. 1. the concept that of tradition -- pt. 2. Dimensions of nationwide cultures -- pt. three. Cultures in corporations -- pt. four. Implications
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Additional info for Cultures and organizations : software of the mind : intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival
Societies are historically, organically developed forms of social organization. Strictly speaking, the concept of a common culture applies to societies, not to nations. Nevertheless, many nations do form historically developed wholes even if they consist of clearly different groups and even if they contain less integrated minorities. Within nations that have existed for some time there are strong forces toward further integration: (usually) one dominant national language, common mass media, a national education system, a national army, a national political system, national representation in sports events with a strong symbolic and emotional appeal, a national market for certain skills, products, and services.
Business companies operate worldwide. They innovate rapidly; many do not know today what products they will manufacture and sell next year or what new job types they will The Rules of the Social Game 19 need in ﬁve years. Mergers and stock market ﬂuctuations shake the business landscape. So, on the surface, change is all-powerful. But how deep are these changes? Can human societies be likened to ships that are rocked about aimlessly on turbulent seas of change? Or to shores, covered and then bared again by new waves washing in, altered ever so slowly with each successive tide?
2 Countries and Regions for Which Dimension Scores Are Available Arabic-speaking Ecuador Pakistan countries (Egypt, El Salvador Panama Iraq, Kuwait, Estonia Peru Lebanon, Libya, Finland Philippines Saudi Arabia, France Poland United Arab Germany Portugal Emirates) Great Britain Romania Argentina Greece Russia Australia Guatemala Serbia Austria Hong Kong Singapore Bangladesh Belgium Flemish (Dutch speaking) Belgium Walloon (China) Slovakia Hungary Slovenia India South Africa1 Indonesia Spain Iran Suriname Brazil Ireland Sweden Bulgaria Israel Switzerland French Canada Quebec Italy Switzerland German Canada total Jamaica Taiwan Chile Japan Thailand China Korea (South) Trinidad Colombia Luxembourg Turkey Costa Rica Malaysia United States Croatia Malta Uruguay Czech Republic Mexico Venezuela Denmark Morocco Vietnam East Africa Netherlands West Africa (French speaking) (Ethiopia, Kenya, New Zealand (Ghana, Nigeria, Tanzania, Zambia) Norway Sierra Leone) 1 The data were from whites only.