Computer design development: Principal papers by Earl E. Swartzlander Jr.

By Earl E. Swartzlander Jr.

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1972b), it is shown that the basic sources of error in measuring the absolute values of the film thickness and refractive index are the errors in prescribing the presumably known parameters and experimental conditions, when creating a nomogram necessary to determine df and n,. These parameters cover the optical characteristics of the substrate, the refractive index of the environment (no), the wavelength of the operating light beam (;lopera,), the angle of light incidence on the specimen (qo),etc.

Schematic diagram of an LPE-3M ellipsometer: 1 . laser; 2, circular polarizer; 3, modulator; 4, polarizer; 5, compensator; 6, specimen; 7, microobjective; 8, analyzer; 9, specular diaphragm; 10, photodetector; 1 1 , screen to observe visually the image of the specimen under study in polarized light. FIG. 13. LPE-3M ellipsometer. 42 A. V. RZHANOV A N D K. K. SVITASHEV All procedures for estimating angles $ and A by directly measured quantities can be obtained on the basis of the analysis of the expression for the output light intensity derived in Section 111-A of the present survey.

3c). And angles t,h and A are calculated following the formulas containing the ratio of the light intensities at the output of the ellipsometer, measured at some fixed positions of the polarizer and analyzer. FIG. 3. Three modifications (a, b, c) of the basic schematic diagram of an ellipsometer: L, light source;W,, operating light beam; P, polarizer; C, compensator;A, analyzer; D, photodetector; S,sample under study. 22 A. V. RZHANOV AND K. K. SVITASHEV Thus, all the experimental techniques for determining the angles of polarization are in the end based on the measurement of the operating light beam intensity at the output of the ellipsometer.

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