By Osamu Oda
This publication is worried with compound semiconductor bulk fabrics and has been written for college kids, researchers and engineers in fabric technology and machine fabrication. It deals them the effortless and intermediate wisdom of compound semiconductor bulk fabrics invaluable for getting into this box. within the first half, the e-book describes the actual homes, crystal development applied sciences, ideas of crystal development, a variety of defects in crystals, characterization recommendations and purposes. within the moment and the 3rd components, the booklet stories numerous compound semiconductor fabrics, together with very important business fabrics and the result of contemporary examine.
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Extra resources for Compound Semicond Bulk Materials And Characterization
A. S. Jordan, R. Von A. R. Neida and J. W. Nielsen, J. Appl. Phys. 52 (1981) 3331. 42. S. Takeuchi, K. Suzuki and K. Maeda, Phil. Mag. / journals. 43. J. C. Phillips and J. A. Van Vechten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23 (1969) 1 1 15. 44. K. Kirchner and T. Suzuki, Acta Muter. 46 (1998) 305. This page intentionally left blank 2. 1 INTRODUCTION For growing single crystals, many kinds of crystal growth methods have been developed for various materials such as metals, oxides and semiconductors. 1. For most compound semiconductor materials, melt growth methods are the main methods of industrial manufacture.
This method is called zone refining (ZR) when it is mainly used for purification and is called zone leveling (ZL) when it is used to dope impurities homogeneously. The horizontal arrangement of this method is called the Horizontal Zone Melting (HZM) method. l(c)). This method is industrially used for GaAs crystal growth under arsenic vapor pressure control (Sec. 1). PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS 32 Ampoule Ampoule Melt ~ -Crystal Temperature Melt -Crystal - Temperature Fig. 2 Vertical boat growth methods.
This crystal growth is performed in horizontal and vertical arrangements. (1) Horizontal Gradient Freezing (HGF) method The HGF method is based on a directional solidification of the melt by decreasing the melt temperature as shown in Fig. 2. I(a). The precise arrangement is found in Ref. 14. I5 In the HGF method, the material in a boat crucible is sealed in an ampoule and melted at a temperature higher than the melting point. The temperature of the ampoule is then cooled as seen in the figure.