By W Ingamells
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Extra resources for Colour for Textiles: A User's Handbook
Natural and synthetic fibres are often blended together to combine the advantages of both in one yarn. In such cases the length of the synthetic filament may be cut to match that of the natural fibre, thus making it possible to use the same spinning machinery for both fibres. Fibre fineness Fibres from different sources show distinctive variations in their cross-sectional shape, but the measured width of a fibre can be taken as the fibre diameter. The theoretical relationship between the diameter and stiffness of a rod can then be invoked to explain the significance of fibre diameter in relation to the practical applications.
The outermost layer of the fibre is the thin waxy cuticle, which protects the fibre from its environment. Before cotton can be used as a textile fibre this layer has to be removed by scouring, otherwise the absorption of water-soluble dyes and other reagents is hindered during processing. 1). Most of the fibre mass is present as the secondary wall. This also consists of spiralling fibrils, in this case with an inclination to the main fibre axis that varies from 20–30° Home near the primary wall to around 40°␣ near to the central air-filled channel (the lumen).
4). Because the angles between the single bonds of a carbon atom are fixed, a chain of carbon atoms cannot lie flat in a straight line. Instead it is forced into a zig-zag Home arrangement. The arrangement of carbon atoms in space is important because it governs the three- 31 COLOUR FOR TEXTILES: A USER’S HANDBOOK dimensional CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 of organic molecules, which CH2 Below the page shapes Above the page may in part determine their physical and chemical properties. 5 The zig-zag conformation of a hydrocarbon chain a factor which is particularly relevant to the design of synthetic fibres (Chapter 4).