By J. Shore
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Extra resources for Colorants and Auxiliaries: Organic Chemistry and Application Properties
The amphoteric agents exhibit excellent compatibility with inorganic electrolytes and with acids and alkalis. Such is their stability in strongly acidic solution that they are even used in cleaning compositions based on hydrofluoric acid . 3 The theory of surface activity The physico-chemical theory of surface activity is a vast field and no more than broad principles can be touched on here; major reference sources exist for those who require more detail of the relationship between chemical structure and the various surfactant properties such as wetting, detergency and emulsification-solubilisation [32–36].
2 lies mainly to the left-hand side. This low degree of ionisation is even further suppressed in the presence of sodium acetate as a result of the common ion (in this case acetate) effect operating through the law of mass action. The undissociated acetic acid is, in effect, a ‘bank’ of hydrogen and acetate ions that can be brought into play as a neutralising mechanism when either acidic or alkaline chemicals enter the system (either by deliberate addition or adventitiously). If a small amount of an acidic solute is added to the mixture, the added hydrogen ions combine with acetate ions to form undissociated acetic acid, which has only a minimal effect on the pH of the system.
The processing water is the most obvious source of such extraneous metal ions, but other potential sources should not be overlooked. For example, trace metals may be dissolved from the surfaces of machinery and fittings. The substrate may already contain such metals, as may also any chemicals or dyes used. Hence these problems cannot always be avoided simply by ensuring the supply of suitable water – indeed, the overzealous treatment of water can actually lead to the presence of troublesome aluminium ions that were not originally present!