Coevolution of Life on Hosts: Integrating Ecology and by Dale H. Clayton, Sarah E. Bush, Kevin P. Johnson

By Dale H. Clayton, Sarah E. Bush, Kevin P. Johnson

For such a lot, the mere point out of lice forces a right away hand to the pinnacle and recollection of youth stories with nits, medicated shampoos, and worrying haircuts. yet for a definite breed of biologist, lice make for attention-grabbing clinical fodder, specifically enlightening within the learn of coevolution. during this publication, 3 prime specialists on host-parasite relationships exhibit how the beautiful coevolution that happens among such species in microevolutionary, or ecological, time generates transparent footprints in macroevolutionary, or ancient, time. by means of integrating those scales, Coevolution of existence on Hosts deals a complete knowing of the impression of coevolution at the range of all life.

Following an creation to coevolutionary innovations, the authors mix experimental and comparative host-parasite ways for trying out coevolutionary hypotheses to discover the impression of ecological interactions and coadaptation on styles of diversification and codiversification between interacting species. Ectoparasites—a varied assemblage of organisms that levels from herbivorous bugs on vegetation, to monogenean flatworms on fish, and feather lice on birds—are robust types for the examine of coevolution simply because they're effortless to watch, mark, and count number. As lice on birds and mammals are everlasting parasites that spend their complete lifecycles at the our bodies in their hosts, they're supreme to producing an artificial review of coevolution—and, thereby, provide a thrilling framework for integrating the ideas of coadaptation and codiversification.

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Some populations of human head lice, with persistent female-biased sex ratios, carry the bacterial sex ratio distorter Wolbachia pipientis (Perotti et al. 2004). The causes and consequences of biased sex ratios in lice need further study. Because the microclimate near the host’s skin is relatively uniform, many lice are capable of breeding throughout the year (Askew 1971; Marshall 1981a). However, lice can still be influenced by non-host environmental factors, such as ambient humidity. Columbiformes (pigeons and doves) in more humid regions of the world have a higher prevalence of feather lice than Columbiformes in drier regions (fig.

Schmidt et al. (2012) described gall mites trapped in 230-million-year-old Triassic amber. Poinar (2009) described a 100-million-year-old termite with a ruptured abdomen containing ten new species of flagellates, as well as a new genus of amoeba. Because termites rely on intestinal protozoans to help digest cellulose, this discovery is among the oldest evidence of mutualistic interactions between animals and microbes. Sources of information about ancient diets are not limited to organisms trapped in amber.

2013): (c) cophylogenetic reconstruction of Columbicola wing lice (left) and their bacterial endosymbionts (right). Phylogenies are based on maximum likelihood analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genes for the lice (Johnson et al 2007), and 16S gene sequences for the bacteria (Smith et al. 2013). Thin lines show insect- bacteria associations (free-living bacteria and endosymbionts of other insects have been pruned from the tree). 05). After Smith et al. (2013). The star-like phylogeny of the bacteria includes many short internal branches, and long, highly variable branches leading to terminal taxa.

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