Cluster magnetic field observations of the bowshock: by Horbury, T. S.; Cargill, P. J.; Lucek, E. A.; Balogh, A.;

By Horbury, T. S.; Cargill, P. J.; Lucek, E. A.; Balogh, A.; Dunlop, M. W.; Oddy, T. M.; Carr, C.; Brown, P.; Szabo, A.; Fornaçon, K.-H

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Extra info for Cluster magnetic field observations of the bowshock: Orientation, motion and structure

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As an example, Fig. 7 displays the Lomb normalized periodograms for the two LEP data sets of Fig. 4. Comparison with the eorresponding FFT power spectra in Fig. 5 reveals the higher quality of the Lomb transformation. 3 Swept-Frequency Excitation A different method to measure the tune involves exciting the beam with a steady sinusoidal wave and detecting the amplitude and phase of the beam response. The excitation frequeney is inereased in steps, or at a eonstant rate. The strength of the harmonie exeitation is adjusted so as to produee beam oseillations of adequate amplitude at the resonant frequeney.

Usually, the dominant impedanee has a narrow frequeney band width, and, therefore, in multi-buneh operation with nb bunehes only a few of the nb multi-buneh modes ean be driven by the impedanee. 1 Harmonie Analysis of Orbit Oseillations By exciting transverse oseillations, sampling the beam position over N turns, and performing a harmonie analysis, one ean determine the betatron phase at the loeation of the piek up as follows [21]. 18) where the index k specifies the BPM, m is the turn number, and A k the measured amplitude, which depends on the loeal beta funetion, on the magnitude of the oseillation, and on the BPM ealibration.

15%. For each quadrupole value, the left column shows the entire ring while the right column shown an expanded view of a particular section. As can be seen, the final quadrupole strength (bottom) yields a satisfactory agreement with the model. 4 'Ir 43 Bump Method Another method which can be used to identify local gradient errors is the 7r-bump technique applied at Tristan and at the ATF [39,40,41]. Here, local orbit bumps are induced, one by one, across each quadrupole magnet (or across small groups of quadrupole magnets), and the orbit is measured.

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