By E. von Glasersfeld

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**Example text**

Na na /n nD1 " # 1 X . 21) We then directly rewrite this Hamiltonian in terms of original fields and Stückelberg ones Ä Z nc nc f a . HQ D d2 x na ˆ2 /. 23) In deriving the first class Hamiltonian HQ in Eq. 22), we have used the conformal map condition, na @i na D 0, which states that the radial vector is perpendicular to the tangent on the S 2 sphere in the extended phase space of the O(3) nonlinear sigma model. The geometrical structure is then conserved in the map from the original phase space to the extended one.

78). 82) In order to set the stage for the symplectic embedding of the Proca model into gauge theory, we consider [60–62, 146] the gauge noninvariant symplectic formalism for this model. Following Refs. 64). 0/ . x; y/ is singular. y/ where 2 is given by Eq. 67). l/ D 1; : : : ; N /, where l refers to the level, ˛ and y stand for the ˛;y . ; x/ . component, while and x label the N-fold infinity of zero modes in R3 . For simplicity, we refer to the zero modes only according to their discrete labelling .

We thus formally converted the second class constraint system into the first class one. 18) 54 5 Hamiltonian Quantization and BRST Symmetry of Soliton Models After some lengthy algebra following the iteration procedure, we obtain the first class physical fields with . 1/ŠŠ D 1 " nQ D n a a Qa D a # 1 X . na na /n nD1 " # 1 X . 21) We then directly rewrite this Hamiltonian in terms of original fields and Stückelberg ones Ä Z nc nc f a . HQ D d2 x na ˆ2 /. 23) In deriving the first class Hamiltonian HQ in Eq.