By David Kleinberg-Levin
At stake during this ebook is a fight with language in a time while our previous religion within the redeeming of the word-and the word's energy to redeem-has virtually been destroyed. Drawing on Benjamin's political theology, his interpretation of the German Baroque mourning play, and Adorno's serious aesthetic idea, but additionally at the considered poets and lots of different philosophers, specifically Hegel's phenomenology of spirit, Nietzsche's research of nihilism, and Derrida's writings on language, Kleinberg-Levin indicates how, as a result of its communicative and revelatory powers, language bears the utopian "promise of happiness," the belief of an earthly redemption of humanity, on the very center of which needs to be the fulfillment of common justice. In an unique studying of Beckett's performs, novels and brief tales, Kleinberg-Levin exhibits how, regardless of inheriting a language broken, corrupted and commodified, Beckett redeems useless or demise phrases and wrests from this language new chances for the expression of which means. with no denying Beckett's nihilism, his photo of a extensively disillusioned global, Kleinberg-Levin calls awareness to moments while his phrases without notice ignite and break away in their melancholy and ache, taking form within the fantastic thing about an austere but joyous lyricism, suggesting that, in any case, that means remains to be attainable.
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Terms that could not be so favored were accordingly to be rejected, cast out and forever banished from legitimate philosophical thought. This rigorous operational positivism set the stage for ambitious experiments in logical positivism to carry out that programme. 125 Intense discussions between them ensued. ” (H 12). Mauthner’s work was an important inspiration for Moritz Schlick, who founded the “Vienna Circle” in 1926 and published, among other works, a General Theory of Knowledge (1918–1925), in which he argued, more radically than had Kant, against metaphysical speculation; and, in keeping with the austere empiricism behind that argument, he encouraged the view that, since the discourses of ethics and aesthetics are capable neither of the kind of rigorous definition possible in mathematics nor the kind of objective verification possible in physics, they must be considered meaningless.
Carried in memory by language, messianicity is that structure which opens the possibility for every singular actualizing messianic event; consequently, it exceeds all messianisms. ”67 In our context here, what Derrida will call “the invincible desire for justice,”68 for a “democracy still to come,”69 is represented by faith in the promise of happiness. ”71 Such will be the modernist conception of the messianic that, in thinking about language and its promise of happiness, we will engage. How, then, in the context of this book, might we conceive what is involved in seeking to reclaim for immanence, for worldly interpretation, the “redemption” of the promise of happiness that language, as I believe, inherently recalls?
And what is literature to make, in a time of extreme disenchantment, of the promise of happiness, versions of which first appeared in the texts of faith that formed our culture? How can literature redeem the promise with its weak and paltry words? 103 §3 Beckett often felt he could not talk—could not find the right words, or the right way, to talk about our experience of living in a time bereft, without a god, without the justifications and consolations of theodicy, and without any absolute grounding.