Bacteria phylogeny by Nader Hassanzadeh

By Nader Hassanzadeh

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34 Possible ancestors of DNA: PNA, p-RNA, and TNA DNA RNA The repeating units of the backbones of RNA, TNA, and p-RNA. 35 RNA world Era of nucleic acid life The RNA world hypothesis proposes that RNA was the first life-form on earth, later developing a cell membrane around it and becoming the first prokaryotic cell. Thus:  All life on earth appears to share the same origins.  There is considerable evidence that there was a period of time on Earth called the RNA world.  In this world life existed as RNA as both phenotype and genotype.

Like a copy from the library, RNA has a complementary code to DNA and goes out to do the dirty work. A few types of RNA have been known to have autocatalytic selfreplicating abilities. These molecules must be encapsulated within a "cell wall structure" or a small protective enclosure from the outside world. But, the protective cell requires replicating genetic machinery to be created. Thus, we now have a "chicken and egg scenario", which came first? The self-replicating machinery (which needs a cell to operate), or the cell itself, which protects (and is created by) the cellular machinery?

48 Origin of DNA 49 A Brief History of Origin of Life 5. DNA/Protein World:  The transcription translation process is the means by which the information in the DNA code creates protein (protein synthesis). 50 Protein synthesis Ribosomal function   During protein synthesis a ribosome moves along an mRNA molecule, reading the codon and adding the correct amino acid (from the corresponding aminoacyl tRNA) to the growing protein. When a stop codon is reached, translation ceases, and the mRNA and protein are released.

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