By William B. Griffen
Apaches at warfare and Peace is the tale of the Chiricahua Apaches at the northern frontier of latest Spain from 1750 to 1858, in particular these in the sector of the Janos presidio in northwestern Chihuahua. utilizing formerly untapped data in Spain, Mexico, and the USA, William Griffen relates how Apache raids and different hostilities have been the norm until eventually Bernardo do Galvez, viceroy of recent Spain, inspired the Apaches to settle close to presidios. through 1790 a few Apaches have been in place of abode at Janos, and intermittent sessions of peace and clash ensued until eventually Mexican independence introduced extra radical alterations in Indian coverage (such because the kingdom of Sonora’s provide of bounties for Indian scalps). Griffen explores problems with altering Indian coverage, Indian-Mexican relatives, and the access of the USA onto the scene after its invasion of Mexico.
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Extra resources for Apaches at war and peace: the Janos Presidio, 1750-1858
They sowed plots at the beginning of the growing season, then left, giving the plants little care, and returned when the crops, usually corn, were ready for harvest. But crop raising was a minor activity and being a farmer never formed a part of an Apache man's self-concept. In fact, according to one of Ball's informants, the the practice of agriculture was thought to be degrading and essentially was thought to be degrading and essentially prohibited by Ussen. Perhaps men considered it too much within the realm of women's Page 11 work, as reported by Cordero in 1796.
Ball 1980: 22; Barrett 1970: 121fn; Betzinez 1959: 16-17. 11. Ball 1970: 9, 11, 27, 37, 67-68, 87, 141; 1980: 13-14, 56-58, 64-65, 76, 99; Barrett 1970: 59-64, 67-68; Opler 1965: 194-200, 267ff; Betzinez 1959: 4, 60-62, 77, 89, 91, 96, 100-101, 110; Opler 1965: 82-134, 154-163. 12. Ball 1970: 46-47, 1980; 4, 9, 11, 12, 32, 57-58, 116, 182, 184; Betzinez 1959: 35, 96; Opler 1965: 472-478. 13. Ball 1970: 11, 16, 55-56, 71, 87, 128; 1980: 9, 14-15, 25, 29, 35, 60-63, 67-68, 76, 92-93; Betzinez 1959: 31-33, 36-37, 113-115; Opler 1965: 194, 205ff, 288-293.
Francisco Corona, law enforcement officer of the Janos municipio, who accompanied me and my wife to some of the backcountry sites important to the present account, and to Sr. Manuel Sáenz, school teacher and friend, who lent valuable assistance on several occasions in acquiring information on Janos and environs. I cannot adequately convey my appreciation to Sra. Virginia Zozaya de Wallace, and to William W. Wallace y Zozaya and his wife Imelda Alvarez de Wallace, all of the Hacienda de Corralitos, for their hospitality and assistance in matters of local Mexican culture.