By Lori Lach, Catherine Parr, Kirsti Abbott
Comprising a considerable a part of residing biomass in the world, ants are necessary to the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. greater than 12,000 species were defined thus far, and it's predicted that maybe as many nonetheless watch for category. Ant Ecology explores key ecological concerns and new advancements in myrmecology throughout various scales. The ebook starts with a world point of view on species variety in time and house and explores interactions on the neighborhood point ahead of describing the inhabitants ecology of those social bugs. the ultimate part covers the hot ecological phenomenon of invasive ants: how they circulation around the globe, invade, have an effect on ecosystems, and are controlled by means of people. each one bankruptcy hyperlinks ant ecology to broader ecological rules, presents a succinct precis, and discusses destiny learn instructions. sensible features of myrmecology, functions of ant ecology, debates, and novel discoveries are highlighted in textual content packing containers in the course of the quantity. The publication concludes with a synthesis of the present country of the sector and a glance at intriguing destiny learn instructions. The wide reference checklist and entire word list are useful for researchers, and people new to the sector.
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Numts are abundant in the genome of the honeybee, Apis mellifera (Pamilo et al. 2007). Thus, when sequencing mitochondrial genes in ants care is needed to ensure that the protocols for extraction and ampliﬁcation yield the targeted mtDNA genes rather than pseudogenes. Although inferences about species boundaries are strengthened by the use of multiple independent markers, we are hampered by a dearth of nuclear genes with appropriate levels of variability for evaluating relationships among closely related populations and species of ants.
Taylor) includes Borneo, Malaya, and Sumatra. 8–5 Mya), climate ﬂuctuations caused wet periods to alternate with regimes of cooler and drier weather. During the same era, rising sea levels alternately inundated and reconnected the Sunda Shelf landmasses. Phylogenetic studies of Crematogaster have yielded insights into the climatic and geographical changes that accompanied these events. One clade of Crematogaster ants, the subgenus Decacrema, evolved an extremely close relationship with trees of the Macaranga genus in Sundaland.
S. Ward and colleagues (unpublished) address the historical biogeography and diversiﬁcation of the group. Their work indicates that the crown group Dolichoderinae arose in the Palaeocene (~65 Mya) and was preceded by ~30 million years of stem lineage evolution (and presumed extinction). Their work had identiﬁed four main clades within the subfamily Dolichoderinae. Based on the DIVA, the crown group Tapinomini, the sister group of all other extant dolichoderines, arose in the Afrotropics < 60 Mya.