By Benoit Dufort
Analog try sign new release utilizing Periodic SigmaDelta-Encoded Data Streams provides a brand new way to generate prime quality analog signs with low complexity. The idea of periodic SigmaDelta-encoded bitstreams is gifted alongside with a suite of empirical tables to aid opt for the best parameters of a bitstream. An optimization process can be defined to assist decide on a piece series with the specified attributes. a wide number of indications will be generated utilizing this strategy. Silicon implementation concerns are mentioned with a particular emphasis on region overhead and straightforwardness of layout. One FPGA circuit and 3 diverse silicon implementations are offered in addition to experimental effects. it's proven that easy designs are in a position to producing very excessive precision signals-on-chip. The method is additional prolonged to multi-bit sign new release the place it truly is proven tips on how to bring up the functionality of arbitrary waveform, turbines ordinarily present in previous and present-day mixed-signal testers. No differences are required, basically the numbers in reminiscence are replaced. 3 varied calibration thoughts to lessen the results of the AWG's non-linearities also are brought, including helping experimental proof.
the focus of this article is to explain an area-efficient process for analog sign new release utilizing SigmaDelta-encoded facts movement. The major features of the process are:
- excessive caliber indications (SFDR of one hundred ten dB observed);
- huge number of indications generated;
- Bitstreams simply got with a quick optimization software;
- stable frequency solution, appropriate with coherent sampling;
- easy and quick undefined implementation;
- typically electronic, other than an simply testable 1-bit DAC and doubtless a reconstruction clear out;
- reminiscence already on hand on-chip could be reused, decreasing zone overhead;
- Designs will be included into present CAD instruments;
- excessive frequency new release.
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Additional info for Analog Test Signal Generation Using Periodic ΣΔ-Encoded Data Streams
21) SNR Here the noise power PN is obtained by integrating the noise PSD over the band of interest. 22) where the total power P TOT in the entire band is given by P TOT = Noise Floor Level . N . 23) The total power for a given signal is constant regardless of the length or how often the measurement is taken. In other words, increasing N will not change P TOTo but it will decrease the noise floor level. 5 dB. The small difference is largely a result of overdriving the quantizer and can be correctly accounted for by reducing the input amplitude slightly.
6 Stimulus Generation This section will present alternatives to the periodic bit stream generator that can be used for signal generation in a BIST method. Pure analog generators are excluded because they are not suited for BIST due to their sensitivity to process variations and their need for calibration. 1 Direct Digital Frequency Synthesis Direct Digital Frequency Synthesis (DDFS) is a method to generate high 22 Chapter 2: Mixed-Signal Testing precision analog signals using digital hardware and a multi-bit digital-to-analog converter.
2-13. A different approach was presented in . It uses a narrow band digital filter to calculate the power of the signal in a small frequency band. By varying the center frequency of the filter, it is possible to extract information for several frequencies and thus calculate a PSD spectrum. 3 On-Chip Digital Sampling Oscilloscope Most of the methods proposed in the literature for parameter extraction have dealt with the testing of ADC. However, purely analog circuits will require 26 Chapter 2: Mixed-Signal Testing ADC ocPower @oo o cos(ooot) - - - 1 - - - - - - - ' sin(ooot) --1-------+---' c1k Figure 2-13: Correlator circuit (one-point DFT) digitization before DSP tests can be performed.