By Isaac Chang, Yuyuan Zhao
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Additional info for Advances in powder metallurgy: Properties, processing and applications
The as-produced electrolytic LaNi5-xMx powders possessed fairly reversible activity in alkaline electrolyte for hydrogen storage, as evidenced in Fig. 0 M KOH at 25°C. 54 © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2013 Advances in powder metallurgy 38 Current industrial method Electrolysis of Ni matte (anode) in aqueous electrolyte. (~10 kWh/kg-Ni)1 Refined Ni matte and LaCl3 Pure Ni Electrolysis of LaCl3 in molten Pure La chlorides, ≥ 950°C. (~20 kWh/kg-La)2 Minerals of nickel and lanthanum Electrolysis of La2O3 in molten fluorides, ≥ 950°C.
G. g. 16 The extra thick lines indicate the 3PIs. can only be a line or point, although charge transfer reactions involve both electrons and ions in close proximity to the geometric 3PI. 46 Qualitatively, electroreduction will be quicker to complete on smaller metal oxide particles, but the actual time or rate of reduction should also depend on the nature of the metal oxide. For example, at the same applied cathode potential and temperature in molten CaCl2, it was observed that NiO or Fe2O3 could be reduced much quicker than TiO220,47.
High production rates: It is already commonplace to operate water atomisers for steel at 250 or 500 kg min–1. As this equates to a production rate of 15–30 t h–1, or at 6000 h per year utilisation, to 90–180 kt per year, there are few requirements in the PM industry for higher outputs. In smelters, where outputs of >100 t h–1 are encountered, it is possible that envisage systems that operate at such rates, simply by using multiple tundish outlets, or by scaling up the nozzles. 5 Mt per year to over 1 Mt per year are certainly feasible.