Advances in Insect Physiology, Vol. 28 by Peter Evans

By Peter Evans

Advances in Insect body structure is dedicated to publishing eclectic volumes containing complete and in-depth studies on all features of insect body structure. First released in 1963, it truly is a vital reference resource for invertebrate physiologists and neurobiologists, entomologists, zoologists, and bug biochemists. In 1999, the Institute for clinical details published figures displaying that Advances in Insect body structure has an influence issue of 4.5, putting it moment within the hugely aggressive class of Entomology. Key gains * This quantity comprises 5 experiences at the following subject matters: * The Drosophila melanogaster Malpighian tubule * Plasticity within the insect fearful method * impartial amino acid absorption within the midgut of lepidopteran larvae * The unpaired median neurons of bugs * FMRFamide similar peptides: a multifunctional family members of structurally similar neuropeptides in bugs

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Although it is undoubtedly the case that some chloride will ¯ow paracellularly, several lines of evidence in Drosophila have implicated the stellate cell as a major transcellular route for chloride. , 1998). First, the calculation that the tubule main segment, when maximally stimulated, is capable of secreting its own volume of ¯uid every 10 s is hard to reconcile with paracellular ¯ux through an epithelium with elaborate septate junctions, which are thought to offer a permeability barrier comparable with tight junctional epithelia of vertebrates.

The Drosophila genome project has turned up two candidate urate transporter genes (CG11372 and CG11374, in tandem copy at 21A5) that are similar to the UATp transporters of vertebrates. It is thus entirely feasible that one of these genes will be expressed in tubules, and that in situ hybridizations will provide evidence for the route of urate transport. However, it would be wrong to imply that nitrogen is always excreted as urate. , 1992). Intriguingly, this gene is expressed at signi®cant levels only in third instar larvae and adults, and is repressed by the wave of ecdysone that presages pupation (Friedman and Johnson, 1977).

Virilis, urate oxidase is expressed only in third instar larvae, whereas in D. , 1992). In this case, it is interesting to try to gain insight from vertebrates. , 1989). By contrast, mice have functional UOX. Although UOX cannot be considered an essential gene in humans, its absence renders them susceptible to defects elsewhere in the purine metabolism pathway. For example, Lesch±Nyhan syndrome is a defect in hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT), causing severe neurological defects and gout-like hyperuricemia (Lesch and Nyhan, 1964).

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