By J.D. Holloway
I spent 4 months in New Caledonia in 1971 with the article of creating a quantitative survey of the night-flying macrolepidoptera with light-traps and an overview of the Rhopalocera and microlepidoptera. This fieldwork was once financed by means of a central authority Grant-in-Aid for medical Investigations adminis tered through the Royal Society, and through a provide from the Godman Fund. I dedicated an extra 3 weeks to sampling on Norfolk I. , and, with assistance from neighborhood naturalists, Mr. and Mrs. F. JOWETT, used to be capable of produce a close account of the biogeography and ecology of the moth fauna (HOLLOWAY, 1977). This e-book is an account of the result of the hot Caledonian paintings, including stories of the geology, phytogeography and basic zoogeography pre sented as historical past for the Lepidoptera fauna and its geography. earlier paintings at the macroheterocera, essentially papers by way of VIETTE (1948- 1971), had recorded now not many greater than 100 species, a really low overall contemplating the realm of the island relative to that of the Fiji crew the place the moths have been being studied through Dr. G. S. ROBINSON while the hot Caledonian excursion was once on the strategy planning stage. The Fijian fauna then promised reflect on ably to exceed 300 species. obviously many extra species awaited discovery in New Caledonia.
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Extra resources for A Survey of the Lepidoptera, Biogeograhy and Ecology of New Caledonia
E. Asia are relict rather than redistributive. E. Asia and northern Australia in proximity, almost enclosing the Tethys Ocean. Archipelagic exchange between the two areas may well have been feasible if the reconstruction is correct, but the dating of events by JOHNSON, POWELL & VEEVERS suggests that at least some adjustments may be necessary. There are indications from Borneo (the palynological work of MULLER, reviewed briefly by HOLLOWAY, 1970) that northern conifers predominated before the Pliocene and only then do southern elements appear in the fossil record.
The megashear zone across the north of New Guinea and the shear zone of the Hunter fracture between Fiji and the New Hebrides are illustrated. sea floor spreading centres on the Plateau. The Plateau is bounded on the north by the Vityaz Trench, to the south of which is a chain of small islands and seamounts that includeRotuma. CHASE suggested this chain of islands was an intruded, older, western continuation of the Samoa-Wallis chain. 3 my for the Rotuma volcanics (ROBINSON, 1975) is suggestive of a more recent history but does not preclude the hypothesis of CHASE.
The reconstruction in Figure 3 presents a more generalised picture but for biogeographical reasons discussed later the western part of Sulawesi is shown as an evenly curved arc convex to presumed subduction from the east; it is suggested here that it then reached its present shape and position as a result of deformation by the left-lateral shear across New Guinea. This would serve to decrease the water gap between Sulawesi and Borneo rather than increase it as suggested by the reconstruction by CARTER et al.