A New Deal for Southeastern Archaeology by Edwin A. Lyon

By Edwin A. Lyon

Recipient of the 1994 Anne B. and James B. McMillan Prize

This complete research offers a historical past of recent Deal archaeology within the Southeast within the Nineteen Thirties and early Nineteen Forties and specializes in the initiatives of the Federal Emergency aid management, the Civil Works management, the Works development management, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the nationwide Park carrier, and the Smithsonian Institution.

using basic resources together with correspondence and unpublished reviews, Lyon demonstrates the good significance of the recent Deal initiatives within the heritage of southeastern and North American archaeology. New Deal archaeology remodeled the perform of archaeology within the Southeast and created the root for the self-discipline that exists this present day. With the present emphasis on curation and repatriation, archaeologists and historians will locate this quantity worthwhile in reconstructing the historical past of the tasks that generated the various collections that now fill our museums.

 

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Holmes prepared a report on the ceramic collection. " He agreed with Moore's conclusion that the first occupants of the St. John's River area did not use pottery. "In a number of cases where there is a succession of layers in the midden deposits the lower strata are without pottery. Resting upon these are beds containing only the rude forms of ware characterized by thick walls, clumsy shapes and plain surfaces or incised-indented decorations of primitive character. ,,52 The development of southeastern archaeology before the depression was influenced not only by excavations in the southeastern states but by the archaeological program of the National Research Council (NRC).

79 John L. 80 In 1928 Webb and Funkhouser published Ancient Life in Kentucky for a general audience, avoiding use of technical terms. They outlined the prehistory of Kentucky, discussing the Fort Ancient, Hopewell, Stone Grave, Iroquois, Algonquin, preCherokee, and Western River cultures. Even at that time they recognized the great diversity in the prehistory of Kentucky. ,,81 This pioneering study of the prehistory of a southeastern state did not lead to a synthetic interpretation of Kentucky prehistory because so little data were available to Webb and Funkhouser.

Beginning in August 1931 Walker focused his attention on the Troyville Mounds in Catahoula Parish. He briefly investigated the site in November 1931 until heavy rains ended work. For two months during the fall of 1932 Walker excavated what remained of the Troyville site after destruction of the largest mound. This site illustrates the fate of many important archaeological sites in the South. " 40 While northern museums were the primary supporters of southeastern archaeology, an amateur could still make an important contribution.

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