By Robert Maltby
Etymology - the research of phrases in particular just about their derivations - used to be an immense point in old proposal, beginning with Plato's Cratylus. within the Roman interval it grew to become much more major, partially end result of the impression of Stoicism at the past improvement of Roman legislations. The De lingua latina of M. Terentius Varro, a latest of a few of the significant classical Latin writers, is a wealthy shop of etymological concept and instance.
With the advance of ancient philology within the 19th century, old etymological perform got here to appear unscientific and hence unworthy of great recognition. Classicists considered as ridiculous such derivations because the recognized ''lucus a non lucendo'' (a 'shady grove', from 'not being lit'); seen etymologies, usually on right names, they tended to brush off as trivial wordplay, feeble punning, or mere ornamentation. yet newer scholarship has proven that etymologies in Latin and Greek poetry and prose variety some distance past right names, and are in no way consistently visible. In an highbrow weather pleasant to different linguistic buildings, historic etymologising is more and more getting used as a device within the examine of historic literature, and the highbrow substructure of old etymological idea is once more being taken heavily. however the old resources for identified etymologies are scattered and occasionally challenging to refer to, and the bounds of the prospective aren't continually revered through literary students.
In A Lexicon of historic Latin Etymologies Robert Maltby offers an imperative source for this box of enquiry. He has assembled all of the explicitly attested etymologies of Latin antiquity, from the predecessors of Varro to Isidore of Seville, protecting glossaries and scholia in addition to typical old etymological source-works. His coverage of quoting commonly, instead of summarising, unearths the relationships among historic specialists, and the reasoning in the back of a lot of their etymologies. the result's a huge paintings of reference with a purpose to ease knowledgeable entry to this zone of historic technology.
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2. Consider the two maps provided on pages 30–1, one showing the 02 pages 001-136 6/8/02 1:26 pm Page 29 ENGLISH BECOMES A WORLD LANGUAGE 29 places in the Atlantic states of the US where bristle is pronounced with [ ] in the ﬁrst syllable (from Kurath and McDavid 1961: Map 59), and the other places in England where bristle was traditionally pronounced either with [ ] or with [υ] in the ﬁrst syllable (based on Kolb et al. 1979: 162). How would you explain the distribution of this pronunciation of bristle in the USA?
The Independent % attrib. % predic. ) variety to variety, except that in New Zealand English women is becoming homophonous with woman, leading to confusion of spelling. English also borrows a lot of nouns from Latin, Italian, French and other languages, and these sometimes retain their foreign plurals: tableaux, tempi, alumni, cherubim and so on. Such plurals are often variable within a variety, but there is no reported case of national varieties being distinctive in terms of which plural they choose (despite the fact that this might seem a natural potential site for such variation).
Main verb) Need she be here early? (auxiliary) (9) All you need to do is tell it like it is. (main verb) All you need do is tell it like it is. (attested. Hundt 1998: 64) (auxiliary) According to Trudgill and Hannah (1994: 61), US English does not have the auxiliary construction with these verbs, although other evidence (for example Hundt 1998: 62–3) suggests that this is an overstatement of the case, and that it would be better to say that the auxiliary construction is rare in US English. Collins (1989: 143–4) ﬁnds that need and dare are not used in precisely parallel ways in Australian English: need is used as a main verb, but while dare is more often found with the do-verb, it tends to be used without the to, leading to a mixed type.