By Jeroen Wiedenhof
A desirable description of a world language, A Grammar of Mandarin combines wide views with illuminating intensity. filled with examples from daily conversations, it goals to allow the language communicate for itself. The publication opens with an outline of the language scenario and a radical account of Mandarin speech sounds. 9 middle chapters discover syntactic, morphological and lexical dimensions. a last bankruptcy lines the chinese language personality script from oracle-bone inscriptions to today’s electronic pens.
This paintings will cater to language beginners and linguistic experts alike. effortless reference is supplied by way of greater than 80 tables, figures, appendices, and a thesaurus. the most textual content is enriched via sections in finer print, delivering extra research and mirrored image. instance sentences are absolutely glossed, translated, and defined from assorted angles, with a willing eye for contemporary linguistic swap. This grammar, briefly, finds a Mandarin language in complete swing.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Mandarin
The visual efect of tone symbols and tone numbers is somewhat similar, as they depict tones as supplementary elements. For pedagogical purposes this is awkward in view of the full integration of tones in the Mandarin sound system. ba, ba, bar, baa and bah. One drawback of this system is that the same tone may be represented in several diferent ways. The Pinyin transcription combines tone symbols with the vowels a, e, i, o, u and ü. A written syllable may contain more than one vowel, but only one tone symbol.
Rù tones may either be assigned separate numbers or be grouped together with similar-sounding tones. In Beijing Mandarin and in many other Mandarin dialects, a register distinction is retained for the píng tone only, and the rù category has disappeared. This explains the modern Chinese linguistic terms for the tones of Beijing Mandarin: yīnpíng ‘high level’, yángpíng ‘low level’, shǎngshēng ‘rising tone’ and qùshēng ‘going tone’. In language education, these tones are usually called dì yì shēng ‘frst tone’, dì èr shēng ‘second tone’, dì sān shēng ‘third tone’ and dì sì shēng ‘fourth tone’.
Uvula uvular i. tip of the tongue, apex apical j. blade of the tongue frontal k back of the tongue dorsal l. (epiglottis) (epiglottal) m. (trachea) n. (esophagus) o. vocal folds, vocal cords voiced Expressions in parentheses are less relevant for the description of Mandarin speech sounds. 34 2 Phonetics and phonology In Mandarin, this distinction between voiced and voiceless consonants is of little relevance, even though it exists marginally. Instead, the major division is that between UNASPIRATED consonants, b- , d- , g- , z- , zh- , j- ; and ASPIRATED consonants, p- , t- , k- , c- , ch- , q- .